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2014管理类联考英语真题(二)

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

2014年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试管理类专业硕士学位联考

英语试卷

                           Section I   Use of English


Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the bestword(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10points)


Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have ___1___ thatnormal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared tothose who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which beingoverweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely todevelop calcium deficiency than thin women.
__3__  among the elderly, being somewhat overweightis often an ___4___ of good health.

Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to bevery difficult to define. It is often ___6___ body mass index, or BIMI ___7___body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BIMI of 18 to 25 isoften considered to be normal weight. Between 25 to 30 is overweight. And over30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___ can be divided into moderately obese,severely obese, and very severely obese.

While such numerical standards seem__9_, they are not.Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with ahigh BMI are in fact extremely fit. __10__ others with a low BMI may bein poor __11__.  For example, manycollegiate and professional football players _12__ as obese, thoughtheir percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame mayhave high body fat but a __13__ BMI.

Today we have a(n)_14_to label obesity as a disgrace. The overweightare sometimes_15_in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes_16_withobesity include laziness, lack of will power, and lower prospects for success.Teachers, employers, and health professionals have been shown to harbor biasesagainst the obese._17_ very young children tend to look down on the overweight,and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.

Negative attitudes toward obesity,____18___ in health concerns have stimulated a number of anti-obesity___19____, My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facilities.many employers  have instituted weightloss and fitness initiatives, Michelle Obama has launched a high-visibilitycampaign ___20___ childhood obesity, even claiming that it represents ourgreatest national security threat!


1. [A] denied                      [B] conduced               [C]doubled          [D] ensured

2. [A] protective           [B] dangerous       [C] sufficient               [D]troublesome

3. [A] Instead              [B] However         [C] Likewise         [D] Therefore

4. [A] indicator            [B] objective         [C]origin             [D] example

5. [A] impact                      [B] relevance               [C]assistance        [D] concern

6. [A] in terms of         [B] in case of               [C]in favor of      [D] in of

7. [A] measures            [B] determines      [C]equals             [D] modifies

8. [A] in essence           [B] in contrast       [C]in turn            [D] in part

9. [A] complicated        [B] conservative    [C]variable          [D] straightforward

10. [A] so                    [B]unlike             [C] since               [D] unless

11. [A] shape                      [B] spirit              [C]balance           [D] taste

12. [A] start                 [B] quality            [C] retire              [D] stay

13. [A] strange             [B] changeable      [C]normal            [D] constant

14. [A] option              [B] reason             [C]opportunity     [D] tendency

15. [A] employed         [B] pictured          [C]imitated          [D] monitored

16. [A]                        [B]combined        [C] settled             [D] associated

17. [A] Even                [B] Still               [C] Yet                 [D] Only

18. [A] despised           [B] corrected         [C]ignored           [D] grounded

19. [A] discussions       [B] businesses       [C]policies           [D] studies

20. [A] for                   [B] against            [C]with                      [D] without


Section II Reading Comprehension


Part A

Directions:

Read the following four passages. Answerthe questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers onANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)


Text 1


What would you do with $559m? Thisis now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recentlyemerged from her small, un-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggestundivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found fortune willyield lasting feelings or fulfillment. She could do worse than read Happy Moneyby Elizabeth Dunn and Michael Norton.

These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show thatthe most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies ofgreat wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yetsatisfaction with these maternal purchases wears off fairly quickly. What wasOnce exciting and new becomes old hat; regret creeps in, It is far better tospend money on experiences, say Ms Dun and Mr. Norton, like interesting trips,unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become morevaluable with time–as stones or memories-particularly if they involve feelingmore connected to others.

This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well aslottery winners get the most” happiness bang for your buck.” It seems mostpeople would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spendmore time with friends and family and less of it watching television (somethingthe average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardlyjollier for it). Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurablethan purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when theyare consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason McDonald’s restricts theavailability of its popular McRib-a marketing trick that has turned the porksandwich into an object of obsession.

Readers of Happy Money are clearly aprivileged lot, anxious about fulfilment, not hunger. Money may not quite buyhappiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than thosein poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on otherscan be seen among rich and poor people around the world. and scarcity enhancesthe pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with theauthors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducingtax incentives for American homebuyers, But most people will come away fromthis book believing it was money well spent.


21. According to Dumn and Norton, which ofthe following is the most rewarding purchase?

[A]A big house

[B]A special tour

[C]A stylish car

[D]A rich meal


22.The author’s attitude toward Americans’watching TV is

[A]critical

[B]supportive

[C]sympathetic

[D]ambiguous


23. Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 toshow that

[A]consumers are sometimes irrational

[B]popularity usually comes after quality

[C]marketing tricks are after effective

[D]rarity generally increases pleasure


24. According to the last paragraph, HappyMoney

[A]has left much room for readers’criticism

[B]may prove to be a worthwhile purchase

[C]has predicted a wider income gap in theus

[D]may give its readers a sense ofachievement


25. This text mainly discusses how to

[A]balance feeling good and spending money

[B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries

[C]obtain lasting satisfaction from moneyspent

[D]become more reasonable in spending onluxuries


Text 2

An article in ScientificAmerica has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you thinkyou’re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel goodabout ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategiesto research into what the call the "above average effect", or"illusory superiority", and shown that, for example, 70% of us rateourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting onwell with othersall obviously statisticalimpossibilities.


We rose tint our memories and putourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized,and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalkaround thinking we’re hot stuff.


Psychologist and behavioralscientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement andattractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress withothers, he asked them to identify an original photogragh of themselves’ from alineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and lessattractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is "an automaticpsychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or noapparent conscious deliberation". If the subjects quickly chose a falselyflattering image- which must did- they genuinely believed it was really howthey looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor wasthere any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, theparticipants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) weredoing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought thatthe images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly correspondedwith those who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. "I don’tthink the findings that we having have are any evidence of personaldelusion", says Epley. "It’s a reflection simply of people generallythinking well of themselves’. If you are depressed, you won’t beself-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley ’s study, it makes sense that whypeople heat photographs of themselves Viscerally-on one level, they don’t evenrecognise the person in the picture as themselves, Facebook therefore ,is aself-enhancer’s paradise, where people can share only the most flatteringphotos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellect and lifestyle it’s notthat people’s profiles are dishonest, says catalina toma of WisconMadison university ,"but they portray an idealized version ofthemselves.


26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have foundthat ______.

[A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high

[B] illusory superiority is baseless effect

[C] our need for leadership is unnatural

[D] self-enhancing strategies are ineffective


27. Visual recognition is believed to be people’s______

[A] rapid watching

[B] conscious choice

[C] intuitive response

[D] automatic self-defence


28. Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to______

[A] underestimate their insecurities

[B] believe in their attractiveness

[C] cover up their depressions

[D] oversimplify their illusions


29. The word "Viscerally"(Line 2,para.5) is closest inmeaning to_____.

[A]instinctively

[B]occasionally

[C]particularly

[D]aggressively


30. It can be inferred that Facebook is self-enhancer’s paradisebecause people can _____.

[A]present their dishonest profiles

[B]define their traditional life styles

[C]share their intellectual pursuits

[D]withhold their unflattering sides


Text 3


The concept of man versus machine is at least as old as theindustrial revolution, but this phenomenon tends to be most acutely feltduringeconomicdownturnsand fragilerecoveries. And yet, it would be a mistake to think we are right now simplyexperiencing the painful side of a boom and bust cycle. Certain jobs have goneaway for good, outmoded by machines. Since technology has such an insatiableappetite for eating up human jobs, this phenomenon will continue to restructureour economy in ways we can't immediately foresee.

When there is exponential improvement in the price and performanceof technology, jobs that were once thought to be immune from automationsuddenly become threatened. This argument has attracted a lot of attention, viathe success of the book Race Against the Machine, by Erik Brynjolfsson andAndrew McAfee, who both hail from MIT's Center for Digital Business.

This is a powerful argument, and a scary one. And yet, John Hagel,author of ThePower of Pulland other books, says Brynjolfsson and McAfee miss the reason why these jobsare so vulnerable to technology in the first place.

Hagel says we have designed jobs in the U.S. that tend to be"tightly scripted" and "highly standardized" ones thatleave no room for "individual initiative or creativity."  In short, these are the types of jobs thatmachines can perform much better at than human beings. That is how we have puta giant target sign on the backs of American workers, Hagel says.

It's time to reinvent the formula for how work is conducted, sincewe are still relying on a very 20th century notion of work, Hagel says. In ourrapidly changing economy, we more than ever need people in the workplace whocan take initiative and exercise their imagination "to respond tounexpected events." That's not something machines are good at. They aredesigned to perform very predictable activities.

As Hagel notes, Brynjolfsson and McAfee indeed touched on this pointin their book. We need to reframe race against the machine as race with themachine. In other words, we need to look at the ways in which machines canaugment human labor rather than replace it. So then the problem is not reallyabout technology, but rather, "how do we innovate our institutions and ourwork practices?"


31. According to the first paragraph,economic downturns would _____.

[A]ease the competition of man vs. machine

[B]highlight machines’ threat to human jobs

[C]provoke a painful technologicalrevolution

[D]outmode our current economic structure


32. The authors of Race Against the Machineargue that _____.

[A]technology is diminishing man’s jobopportunities

[B]automation is accelerating technologicaldevelopment

[C]certain jobs will remain intact afterautomation

[D]man will finally win the race againstmachine


33. Hagel argues that jobs in the U.S. areoften _____.

[A]performed by innovative minds

[B]scripted with an individual style

[C]standardized without a clear target

[D]designed against human creativity


34. According to the last paragraph,Brynjolfsson and McAfee discussed _____.

[A]the predictability of machine behaviorin practice

[B]the formula for how work is conductedefficiently

[C]the ways machines replace human labor inmodern times

[D]the necessity of human involvement inthe workplace


35. Which of the following could be themost appropriate title for the text?

[A]How to Innovate Our Work Practices

[B]Machines will Replace Human Labor

[C]Can We Win the Race Against Machines

[D]Economic Downturns Stimulate Innovations


Text 4

When the government talks aboutinfrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads,railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned.

Why is that? To some extentthe housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good atcommunicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth.Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to jostlefor attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure projects, so it isinevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the mostsignificant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged.This government does not want to see a return to large-scale provision ofcouncil housing, so it is naturally wary of measures that will lead us downthat route.

Nevertheless, the affordablehousing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we aresimply not building enough new homes.

The comprehensive spendingreview offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needsto put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address oururgent housing need.

There are some indicationsthat it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, hashinted that George Osborne may introduce more flexibility to the current cap onthe amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt.The cap, introduced in 2012 as part of the Housing Revenue Account reform, hasbeen a major issue for the sector. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homescould be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDPby 0.6%.

Ministers should also look atcreating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have asignificant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund newdevelopments from revenues.

Finally, they should look atthe way in which public sector land is released. Currently up-front paymentsare required, putting a financial burden on the housing provider. A morepositive stimulus would be to encourage a system where the land is madeavailable and maintained as a long-term equity stake in the project.

But it is not just down to thegovernment. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we mustface up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund newaffordable housing, set to expire in 2015, is unlikely to be extended beyondthen. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large partof the coalition's spending plans if it returns to power. The housing sectorneeds to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to the era oflarge-scale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate. Thismeans that affordable housing specialists like Wates Living Space have tocreate a whole new way of working in partnership with registered providers. Wehave to be prepared to take on more of the risk during the development phase,driving down the cost to deliver high-quality affordable housing and, mostimportantly, developing alternative funding models to help achieve this.

While the government'scommitment to long-term funding may have changed, the very pressing need formore affordable housing is real and is not going away. The comprehensivespending review provides the opportunity to start moving us in the rightdirection – stimulating investment in new supply and quickly deliveringtangible benefits to local economies. It also helps create the space to developa long-term sustainable strategy for.


36.The author believes that the housing sector______.

[A]hasattracted much attention

[B]haslost its real value in economy

[C]shoulderstoo much responsibility

[D]involvescertain political factors


37.It can be learned that affordable housing has_____.

[A]sufferedgovernment biases

[B]increasedits home supply

[C]offeredspending opportunities

[D]disappointedthe government


38.According to Paragraph 5, George Osborne may _____.

[A]prepareto reduce housing stock debt

[B]releasea lifted GDP growth forecast

[C]allowgreater government debt for housing

[D]stoplocal authorities from building homes


39. It can be inferredthat a stable rental environment would _____.

[A]lowerthe costs of registered providers

[B]relievethe minister of responsibilities

[C]contributeto funding new developments

[D]lessenthe impact of government interference


40.The author believes that after 2015, the government may _____.

[A]implementmore policies to support housing

[B]stopgenerous funding to the housing sector

[C]renewthe affordable housing grants programme

[D]reviewthe need for large-scale public grants


PartB

Directions:

Read the following text and answerquestions by finding information from the right column that corresponds to eachof the marked details given in the left column. There are two extra choices inthe left column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)


Emerging in the late Sixties and reaching a peak in the Seventies,Land Art was one of a range of new forms, including Body Art, Performance Art,Action Art and Installation Art, which pushed art beyond the traditionalconfines of the studio and gallery. Rather than portraying landscape, landartists used the physical substance of eland itself as their medium.

The British land artist, typified by Richard Long’s piece, was notonly more domestically scaled, but a lot quirkier than its Americancounterpart. Indeed, while you might assume that an exhibition of Land Artwould consist only of records of works rather than the works themselves, Long’sphotograph of his work is the work. Since his “action” is in the past thephotograph is its sole embodiment.

That might seem rather an obscure point, but it sets the tone for anexhibition that contains a lot of black-and-white photographs and relativelyfew natural objects.

Long is Britain’s best-known Land Artist and his Stone Circle, aperfect ring of purplish rocks from Portishead beach laid out on the galleryfloor, represents the elegant, rarefied side of the form. The Boyle Family, onthe other hand, stand for its dirty, urban aspect. Comprising artists MarkBoyle and Joan Hills and their children, they recreated random sections of theBritish landscape on gallery walls. Their Olaf Street Study, a square ofbrick-strewn waste ground, is one of the few works here to embrace themundanity that characterises most of our experience of the landscape most ofthe time.

Parks feature, particularly in the earlier works, such as JohnHilliard’s very funny. Across the Park, in which a long-haired stroller isvariously smiled at by a pretty girl and unwittingly assaulted in a sequence ofimages that turn out to be different parts of the same photograph.

Generally however British land artists preferred to get away fromtowns, gravitating towards landscapes that are traditionally consideredbeautiful such as the Lake District or theWiltshire Downs. While it probably wasn’t apparent at the time, much of thiswork is permeated by a spirit of romantic escapism that the likes of Wordsworthwould have readily understood. Derek Jarman’s yellow-tinted film TowardsAvebury, a collection of long, mostly still shots of the Wiltshire landscape,evokes a tradition of English landscape painting stretching from Samuel Palmerto

Paul Nash.

In the case of Hamish Fulton, you can’thelp feeling that the Scottish artist has simply found a way of making his loveof walking pay. A typical work, such as Seven Days, consists of a singlebeautiful black-and-white photograph taken on an epic walk, with the mileageand number of days taken listed beneath. British Land Art as shown in this wellselected, but relatively modestly scaled exhibition wasn’t about imposing onthe landscape, more a kind of landscape-orientated light conceptual art createdpassing through. It had its origins in the great outdoors, but the results wereas gallery-bound as the paintings of Turner and Constable.


  


  

[A]originates  from a long walk that the artist took.

41.Stone  Cirele

[B]illustrates  a kind of landscape-orientated light conceptual art.

42.Olaf  Street Study

[C]reminds  people of the English landscape painting tradition.

43.Across  the Park

[D]represents  the elegance of the British land art.

44.Towards  Avebury

[E]depicts  the ordinary side of the British land art.

45.Seven  Days

[F]embodies  a romantic escape into the Scottish outdoors.


[G]contains  images from different parts of the same photograph.


Section III   Translation

46.Directions:

Translate the following text from Englishinto Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

Most people would define optimism as being endlessly happy, with aglass that’s perpetually half full. But that’s exactly the kind of falsecheerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn’t recommend. “Healthy optimismmeans being in touch with reality,” says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor.According to Ben-Shahar, realistic optimists are those who make the best ofthings that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best.

Ben-Shahar uses three optimistic exercises. When he feels down- say,after giving a bad lecture- he grants himself permission to be human. Hereminds himself that not every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be lesseffective than others. Next is reconstruction. He analyzes the weak lecture,learning lessons for the future about what works and what doesn’t. Finally,there is perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the grand scheme oflife, one lecture really doesn’t matter.


Section IV  Writing


PartA

47. Directions:

Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment withJohn, a local student. Write him an email to

1) tell him about your living habits, and

2) ask for advice about living there.

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Zhang Wei”instead.

Do not write your address. (10 points)


PartB

48. Directions:

In this section, you are asked to write an essay based on thefollowing statement:

1) interpret the chart, and


2) give yourcomments.

You should write at least 150 words.

Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)






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